High-temperature polymers or their synthetic version is used in many industrial materials. From coatings to fibers there is a vast range of polymers which are used for making a wide range of materials which are used in day to day life as well. The major classification which is done in this regard is the polymers which are soluble in some liquids. Such liquids are also softened by heat. There is another class of polymers which are not soluble by heat, made by the chain reaction and therefore it is not softened by heat at all. There is another class of polymers which are known as man-made and these are also used in many industrial applications. Whatever the range of polymers is the fact of the matter is there are repeated molecules which are used in making of the material. Let us start with the major types of polymers:
It is regarded as the most important type of polymer which is available in the market. The best example of this polymer is plastic which is used in many industrial applications. Apart from all this, the polymer is also used in everyday life. Highly flammable materials are used to make these. It includes petroleum, butane, and even propane.
The best part of this type is that it is used in many applications as it is easy to install and even cut. Once the soluble chemicals are mixed to form these they demonstrate completely different properties which make them highly usable in every walk of life. Plastic is a very important component which is used widely in every walk of life. Without this component, life seems to be impossible now.
Ethane is the gas which is used in the making of these polymers. It forms a base of plastics which has a single class. The cracking of the gas leads to this kind of polymer and it is also regarded as one of the most used molecules. When developed initially the usage of this polymer was very limited as the developers were not aware of the waxy substance which was produced.
However, the first usage of this awesome polymer was made in an awesome manner. It was during the WWII when radar cables were insulated using this polymer. Till then it was not commercially available. In 1968 it was commercially introduced in the market by Philips Petroleum.
There are three main classes of this polymer. Rigid, Semi rigid and flexible. The rigid ones are also known as high-temperature polyurethane which is used the making of automotive applications and electrical devices. These are very much heat resistant and therefore are regarded as that of the highest grade. There are 7 subcategories of rigid polyurethane which are used in the process. The second class is that of semi rigid which has 8 sub categories and are applied in various fields. The main uses are that of electrical equipment coating such as electrical cards. Low and medium voltage equipment is also made using this polymer.
Recently the courts under the English jurisdiction more and more often hear cases about cross-border disputes. This is such cases which arise between persons of the different states. The review of the last activity of English commercial court has shown that from all cares the more than half is cross-border disputes (437 of 705).
Why the foreign legal entities and individuals prefer the English courts?
First of all those are persons who live in England or Wales or those who have the real estate or company there, but at the same time aren’t citizens of this country. This is the most commonly used and logical situation. But what has attracted the interest of persons which don’t have any relations to Wales and England? Mrs. Justice Carr, the head of the High Court of England, claims that popularity of the English courts consists in their ideal reputation. London is long ago acknowledged as law center of Europe therefore the aspiration of people to resolve the legal issues exactly here is completely justified. The independent and strong judicial manpower making the English courts the excellent spaces for the correct, safe and impartial solution of many affairs. In order to find the solicitor who will be able to make deal with your case use the Solicitors.guru website.
Also the head of court claims that such features of the English commercial courts are very attractive to foreigners:
- Existence of special commercial court;
- Competent judges which have many practical experiences in hearing of cases or causes;
- Absence of jurors when civil cases proceed;
- The discovery procedure (“disclosure of documents”). It is necessary to tell that this procedure in England isn’t such global, as in the USA;
- Big range of interim measures;
- A large volume of the unprecedented right which has been published, thanks to what all judgments are consecutive, accurate and rather predictable no matter what difficult they can be.
Also, these positive features include the possibility of collecting all (or part of) costs spent on court process from the defendant and the small size of expenses if to compare it with arbitration courts. But the commercial court doesn’t promise any confidentiality, unlike of arbitration. Check out the info about the way to be insured from the waste of money choosing that law expert in the article with no win no fee explained.
To what principles the English courts adhere?
Usually everything begins with a request for summons. As a rule, the court provides delivery of notice paper to the defendant personally if he lives in Wales or England. But in the case of cross-border disputes it is almost impossible to make this therefore the special procedure is provided.
In most cases, if defendant person has the permanent residence in one of the European Union countries, Scotland or Northern Wales, there is no need to appeal to the English court with a request to send the notice paper. In a case with other countries permission from the English court to the delivery of the notice paper is necessary. Usually in such cases it is about the legal entity, and the residence is an address of the business registration.
If the defendant is a natural person, then everything is much simpler. For obtaining the notice paper for him is enough just to arrive in England. Usually it is quite simple to hand-deliver the notice paper as the people in any way connected with this country are an appeal to the English courts. In that case the solicitor advises to the claimant to always carry around the notice paper in order to hand-deliver it at once as soon as the defendant arrives in England. If it isn’t possible, then delivery of notice paper happens according to the same scheme, as with legal entities.